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Phrasing 3 Theory

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Theory
 
Intro
 1   Strokes
 2   Vowels
 3   Forming Outlines
 4   Circles
 5   Loops
 6   Hooks Intro
 7   Hooks R L
 8   Hooks N F V
 9   Shun Hook
10  Halving
11  Doubling
12  Hay Aspirate
13  W Forms
14  L Forms
15  R Forms
16  Imp/Imb
17  Ish
18  Prefixes
19  Suffixes General
20  Suffixes Contracted

Short Forms
Intro
SF List 1
SF List 2
SF List 3
SF List 4

Contractions
Contractions Intro
Contractions Main

Contractions Optional

Phrasing

1 Intro & Contents list
2 Theory
3 Theory
4 Omission
Part words
5 Omission
Whole words
6 Miscellaneous
7 Miscellaneous
8 Intersections

Distinguishing Outlines
DO Intro
DO List 1 A-C
DO List 2 D-H
DO List 3 I-P
DO List 4 Q-Y

Vocabulary
Intro
Numbers
Punctuation
Shorthand Dictionaries

Word Lists
Text Lists from PDFs

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PAGE DATE 4 March 2017   Sounds/syllables/words omitted from a phrase are underlined

2.  Change of form:
(f)  R Forms
(g) L Forms
(h) H Forms
(i)  W Forms
(j)  Imp
(k) Non-use of Short Forms

(f) R forms

R can be represented by Ray, Ar or R Hook, and may change from the form used in the basic outline:

Pitman's New Era: were, we were, they were, these were, if it were. if any were
were = we were, they were, these were, if it were, if any were

Pitman's New Era: war, world war, man-of-war/man o' war
war = world war, man-of-war/man o' war

Pitman's New Era:
or = one or more, two or more, at or about
compare on or about, out and about

See also Phrasing 5 Omission/or

Pitman's New Era: Sir David, Sir James, Sir Henry, Sir Christopher, Sir Charles
Sir = Sir Christopher, Sir Charles, Sir David, Sir James

 

Pitman's New Era: dare, I dare not, I dare say
dare = I dare not, I dare say

Pitman's New Era: door, out of doors, outdoor, indoor
door = out of doors
Note also: outdoor, indoor

Pitman's New Era: appear, appeared, it would appear, to appear, he appears, it appears that, they appeared
appear, appeared = it would appear, to appear, he appears, it appears that, they appeared

Pitman's New Era: power, power down, power tools, power-house, power-station, power-point/Powerpoint
power = power down, power tools
also power-house, power-station, power-point/Powerpoint which are compound words

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(g) L forms

L can be represented by upward Ell, downward Ell or L Hook. In a phrase, an outline with upward Ell may change to downward to achieve a better join:

Pitman's New Era: else less, anything else, nothing is less, less than, any less than, not less than
else less = anything else, nothing is less
*, less than, any less than, not** less than

*See also Phrasing 6/Essential Vowels/else less    **Insert the vowel in "not" or write it separately

Pitman's New Era: longer it is no longer, any longer, no longer than
longer = it is no longer, any longer, no longer than

Pitman's New Era: elsewhere, where else, somewhere else
elsewhere = where else, somewhere else

Pitman's New Era: anywhere else, nowhere else, everywhere else
anywhere else, nowhere else, everywhere else

Pitman's New Era: like, anything like, nothing like, something like
like = anything like, nothing like, something like

Pitman's New Era: I would like, I would like to know
I would like, I would like to know

Pitman's New Era: let, let us, let us say, let us see, let us know, please let us know, let us have, let you have
let = let us, let us say, let us see, let us know, please let us know, let us have, let you have

Pitman's New Era: last, letter = your letter, your last letter, this letter, in our last letter
last, letter = your letter, your last letter, this letter, in our last letter


Pitman's New Era: line = in line, for this line, clothesline
line = in line, for this line
compare clothesline

Pitman's New Era: will, he will, they will, you will, this will
will = he will, they will, you will, this will

Pitman's New Era: sale, old, for sale, this sale, years old
sale, old = for sale, this sale, years old

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(h) H forms

H can often be safely omitted from common words in a phrase:

Pitman's New Era: hope, I hope, we hope that, we hoped that, let us hope that, would hope, we would hope
hope
= I hope, we hope that, we hoped that, let us hope that, would hope, we would hope

Pitman's New Era: home, at home, at home and abroad, at home and overseas
home
= at home, at home and abroad*, at home and overseas*

*These two do not need the vowel, as they have more information in them

Pitman's New Era: house, of the house, by the house, in the house, for the house, lower house
house
= of the house, by the house, in the house, for the house, lower house*

*Dot Hay and vowel shown for reference

Pitman's New Era: in this house, upper house, custom house, in the housing market
in this house
*, upper house, custom house  "housing" is clearer in full: in the housing market

*Large Circle used to represent two small circles, compare "Theory 12 Hay/clotheshorse"

Pitman's New Era: history, for the history, in the history of the
history
= for the history, in the history of the

Pitman's New Era: happen, it has happened, what has happened, would happen, would have been
happen
= it has happened, what has happened, would happen*, would have been**

*Dot Hay and vowel shown for reference. **See also Phrasing 2/have been

Pitman's New Era: freehold, leasehold, freehold property, freehold land, leasehold premises
freehold, leasehold = freehold property, freehold land, leasehold premises

Tick omitted:

Pitman's New Era: hear hardly, hear hear, there is hardly
hear hardly = hear hear, there is hardly

Pitman's New Era: whom, from whom, from me, from him
whom = from whom (insert vowel) compare from me, from him

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(i) W forms

W can be represented by Way, Wel or W Semicircle or omitted:

Pitman's New Era: was, this was, that was, never was, if it was, another was
was = this was, that was, never was, if it was, another was

Pitman's New Era: were, nor were they, when were/when we are, if that were
were = nor were they, when were/when we are, if that were

W Semicircle omitted:

Pitman's New Era: such were, such as were, you were, if he were, if he were not, who were
such were, such as were, you were, if he were, if he were not, who were

Pitman's New Era: as it were, which were, there were, those which were, how were, I wish there were
as it were, which were, there were, those which were, how were, I wish there were

"what were" needs both outlines in full, because if you left out the second semicircle sign, the phrase would be identical to "were":

Pitman's New Era: what, were, what were, I know what were
what, were = what were
also I know what were

Omitting the hook on Wel:

Pitman's New Era: will, I will, you will, if he will, they will, she will
will = I will, you will, if he will, they will, she will

Pitman's New Era: as it will be, such will, such as will be, for it will have, if it will, that will not
as it will be, such will, such as will be, for it will have, if it will, that will not

Pitman's New Era: those will, this will, these will, this will not, as long as will
those will, this will, these will, this will not, as long as will

Pitman's New Era: we will, where will, and will, anything will, something will be
But the hook joins well in:
we will, where will, and will, anything will, something will be

Do not use the plain Ell for the noun "will" (both meanings: force of mind, and legal document) or the verb (meaning to bequeath):

Pitman's New Era: Their will to succeed is very strong. If you will him the house, he will be glad.
Their will to succeed is very strong. If you will him the house, he will be glad.

Pitman's New Era: This Will is not signed. Their Will was in the drawer.
This Will is not signed. Their Will was in the drawer.

Pitman's New Era: last Will and Testament
Only exception:
last Will and Testament Vowel helpful

The noun Will, referring to the legal document, is often written with a capital letter to prevent misreading and misunderstanding.

Pitman's New Era: well, very well, it may well be, it may very well be, he may well be
well = very well
*, it may well be, it may very well be, he may well be

*Vowel advised, see Phrasing 6/Distinguishing pairs/well low ill

Top of page Pitman's New Era: you may well, you may as well, it is well known, so well
you may well, you may as well, it is well known, so well  
Always insert the vowel if it helps

Pitman's New Era: war, of (the) war, throughout the war, during the war, before the war, civil war
war = of thewar, throughout the war, during the war, before the war, civil war

Pitman's New Era: wear, evening wear, knitwear sportswear
wear = evening wear
compare knitwear sportswear

Pitman's New Era: wire, this wire, live wire, earth wire
wire = this wire, live wire, earth wire

Pitman's New Era: word, any word, no word, many words, in his own words, few words
word = any word, no word, many words, in his own words, few words

Pitman's New Era: following words, in those words, in these words, Holy Word, God's Word
following words, in those words, in these words, Holy Word, God's Word

Pitman's New Era: world, this world, another/in their world, civilised world
world = this world, another/in their world, civilised world

Pitman's New Era: all the world, in the world/any world, all over the world
all the world, in the world/any world, all over the world

Pitman's New Era: work, of the work, for the work, with the works, this work
work = of the work
*, for the work, with the works, this work   *Vowel shown for reference

Pitman's New Era: worse, any worse, no worse, no worse than
worse = any worse, no worse, no worse than

Pitman's New Era: worth, worthy = not worth, it is worth, local worthies
worth, worthy = not worth, it is worth, local worthies

Pitman's New Era: to be worth, worthwhile, be worthwhile, not worthwhile
to be worth, worthwhile, be worthwhile, not worthwhile

With, when, what, would:

Pitman's New Era: with the, with us/his, with you, with me, with it, with which, with them, with their
with the, with us/his, with you, with me, with it, with which, with them, with their

Pitman's New Era: when the, when is/has the, when do/had, when they, when that, when you, when he, when we, when would
when the, when is/has the, when do/had
*, when they, when that, when you, when he, when we, when would

*If necessary, you can indicate that it is "had" by inserting Dot Hay and the A vowel, see Phrasing 7/had not

Pitman's New Era: what the, what is/his/has, what is/has the, what is/has your, what you/what would, what can, what do, what had, what have/whatever
what the, what is/his/has, what is/has the, what is/has your, what you/what would, what can, what had, what do, what have/whatever

Pitman's New Era: would the, would you, would he, would be, would it, would she, would have
would the, would you, would he, would be, would it, would she, would have

Pitman's New Era: it would, which would, you would, he would, she would, I would, we would, they would
it would, which would, you would, he would, she would, I would, we would, they would

Kway is usually used for K+W spoken together, but is useful to extend the short form "can":

Pitman's New Era: can we, can we have, can we follow, can we say, can we please, can we permit
can we, can we have, can we follow, can we say, can we please, can we permit

Pitman's New Era: likewise lukewarm
likewise
* likewise (non-dictionary alternative) compare lukewarm*

*These two are the dictionary outlines

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(j) Imp

In the following, Imp is used for M+P and M+B even though the sounds are in different syllables:

Pitman's New Era: for some time past, for some considerable time past, tempest, lamp-post
for some time past, for some considerable time past
compare tempest, lamp-post

Pitman's New Era: legislative assembly, legislative assembly
legislative assembly = legislative assembly

(k) Non-use of short form

Where the original short form outline does not join:

Pitman's New Era: called, so called, was called, what is called, miscalled
called = so-called
*, was called, what is called compare miscalled  *Vowel helpful

Pitman's New Era: first, first rate, at first sight, at first, at first hand, first hand, first class, first quality
first = first rate, at first sight, at first, at first hand
compare first hand, first class, first quality

Pitman's New Era: from, from the first, from first to last
from = from the first, from first to last

Pitman's New Era: hand either other, on the other hand, on either hand, on their own, they are not
hand either other = on the other hand, on either hand
compare on their own, they are not

Pitman's New Era: our, in our/nor, in our way, in our opinion, it is in our interests
our = in our
OR nor, in our way, in our opinion, it is in our interests

Pitman's New Era: in our world, in our reply, in our hands
in our world, in our reply, in our hands

Pitman's New Era: are, they are, and they are, for they are, if they are
are = they are, and they are, for they are
*, if they are*

*See also Phrasing 6/Distinguishing pairs/if for

"Much" in some phrases is written with the stroke Em to enable it to join:

Pitman's New Era: much, so much, how much, to/too much, was as much, there is much, very much
much = so much, how much, to/too much, was as much, there is much, very much

Pitman's New Era: so large, how large, very large
Compare
so large, how large, very large

Pitman's New Era: more, much more, much more than, very much more than, so much more than
more = much more, much more than, very much more than, so much more than

Pitman's New Era: herewith, enclose herewith, I have enclosed herewith, send herewith


herewith = enclose herewith, I have enclosed herewith, send herewith

These are safer with the W vowel shown, to distinguish from "them", but still quicker than separate outlines.

Pitman's New Era: what, I know what, have what we can, that is what, somewhat
what = I know what, have what we can, that is what, somewhat
*

*Vowels shown but not essential. This is semicircle W for "wo-" vowel, rather than the short form "what", note also the Dot Hay against it.

Pitman's New Era: would, we would, I would, this would, some would, many would, if it would
would = we would, I would, this would, some would, many would, if it would

Pitman's New Era: was, this was, if it was, I think it was the, why was the
was = this was, if it was, I think it was the, why was the

Pitman's New Era: word, this would/word, these words, several words, in other/in their words, many words
word = this word/would, these words, several words, in other/in their words, many words

Pitman's New Era: my own words, in our own words, satisfactory words
my own words, in our own words, satisfactory words

Pitman's New Era: year, this year, many years, New Year, another year
year = this year
*, many years, New Year**, another year

*This awkward change of direction is avoided wherever possible, and not used in basic outlines, but this phrase is still quicker than separate outlines.

**Keep the Yay+Ray stroke long, as this is similar to the contracted phrase for "New York" (N+Yay)

Pitman's New Era: yard, many yards, several yards, back yard, coal yard
yard = many yards, several yards, back yard, coal yard

Pitman's New Era: two yards, three words, hundred yards
Use the short form if it joins well:
two yards/words, three yards/words, hundred yards/words

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